During this day they contented themselves with bivouacking there on 1
the beach at the harbour. The place which goes by the name of Calpe
Haven is in Asiatic Thrace, the name given to a region extending from
the mouth of the Euxine all the way to Heraclea, which lies on the
right hand as you sail into the Euxine. It is a long day's voyage for
a war-ship, using her three banks of oars, from Byzantium to Heraclea,
and between these two there is not a single Hellenic or friendly city,
but only these Bithynian Thracians, who have a bad reputation for the
savagery with which they treat any Hellenes cast ashore by shipwreck
or otherwise thrown into their power.

Now the haven of Calpe lies exactly midway, halving the voyage between
Byzantium and Heraclea. It is a long promontory running out into the
sea; the seaward portion being a rocky precipice, at no point less
than twenty fathons high; but on the landward side there is a neck 3
about four hundred feet wide; and the space inside the neck is capable
of accommodating ten thousand inhabitants, and there is a haven
immediately under the crag with a beach facing the west. Then there is
a copious spring of fresh water flowing on the very marge of the sea
commanded by the stronghold. Again, there is plenty of wood of various
sorts; but most plentiful of all, fine shipbuilding timber down to the
very edge of the sea. The upland stretches into the heart of the
country for twenty furlongs at least. It is good loamy soil, free from
stones. For a still greater distance the seaboard is thickly grown
with large timber trees of every description. The surrounding country
is beautiful and spacious, containing numerous well populated
villages. The soil produces barley and wheat, and pulse of all sorts,
millet and sesame, figs in ample supply, with numerous vines producing
sweet wines, and indeed everything else except olives. Such is the
character of the country.

The tents were pitched on the seaward-facing beach, the soldiers being
altogether averse to camping on ground which might so easily be
converted into a city. Indeed, their arrival at the place at all
seemed very like the crafty design of some persons who were minded to
form a city. The aversion was not unnatural, since the majority of the
soldiers had not left their homes on so long a voyage from scantiness
or subsistence, but attracted by the fame of Cyrus's virtues; some of
them bringing followers, while others had expended money on the
expedition. And amongst them was a third set who had run away from
fathers and mothers; while a different class had left children behind,
hoping to return to them with money or other gains. Other people with
Cyrus won great success, they were told[1]; why should it not be so
with them? Being persons then of this description, the one longing of
their hearts was to reach Hellas safely.

[1] I.e. "his society was itself a passport to good fortune."

It was on the day after their meeting that Xenophon sacrificed as a
preliminary to a military expedition; for it was needful to march out
in search of provisions, besides which he designed burying the dead. 9
As soon as the victims proved favourable they all setout, the
Arcadians following with the rest. The majority of the dead, who had
lain already five days, they buried just where they had fallen, in
groups; to remove their bodies now would have been impossible. Some
few, who lay off the roads, they got together and buried with what
splendour they could, considering the means in their power. Others
they could not find, and for these they erected a great cenotaph[2],
and covered it with wreaths. When it was all done, they returned home
to camp. At that time they supped, and went to rest.

[2] "Cenotaph", i.e. "an empty tomb." The word is interesting as
occuring only in Xenophon, until we come to the writers of the
common dialect. Compare "hyuscyamus," hogbean, our henbane, which
we also owe to Xenophon. "Oecon." i. 13, see Sauppe, "Lexil. Xen."

Next day there was a general meeting of the soldiers, collected
chiefly by Agasias the Stymphalian, a captain, and Hieronymus, an
Eleian, also a captain, and other seniors of the Arcadians; and they
passed a resolution that, for the future, whoever revived the idea of
breaking up the army should be punished by death. And the army, it was
decided, would now resume its old position under the command of its
former generals. Though Cheirisophus, indeed, had already died under
medical treatment for fever[3]; and Neon the Asinaean had taken his

[3] This I take to be the meaning of the words, which are necessarily
ambiguous, since {pharmakon}, "a drug," also means "poison." Did
Cheirisophus conceivably die of fever brought on by some poisonous
draught? or did he take poison whilst suffering from fever? or did
he die under treatment?

After these resolutions Xenophon got up and said: "Soldiers, the
journey must now, I presume, be conducted on foot; indeed, this is
clear, since we have no vessels; and we are driven to commence it at
once, for we have no provisions if we stop. We then," he continued,
"will sacrifice, and you must prepare yourselves to fight now, if
ever, for the spirit of the enemy has revived."

Thereupon the generals sacrificed, in the presence of the Arcadian
seer, Arexion; for Silanus the Ambraciot had chartered a vessel at
Heraclea and made his escape ere this. Sacrificing with a view to 13
departure, the victims proved unfavourable to them. Accordingly they
waited that day. Certain people were bold enough to say that Xenophon,
out of his desire to colonise the place, had persuaded the seer to say
that the victims were unfavourable to departure. Consequently he
proclaimed by herald next morning that any one who liked should be
present at the sacrifice; or if he were a seer he was bidden to be
present and help to inspect the victims. Then he sacrificed, and there
were numbers present; but though the sacrifice on the question of
departure was repeated as many as three times, the victims were
persistently unfavourable. Thereat the soldiers were in high dudgeon,
for the provisions they had brought with them had reached the lowest
ebb, and there was no market to be had.

Consequently there was another meeting, and Xenophon spoke again:
"Men," said he, "the victims are, as you may see for yourselves, not
yet favourable to the march; but meanwhile, I can see for myself that
you are in need of provisions; accordingly we must narrow the
sacrifice to the particular point." Some one got up and said:
"Naturally enough the victims are unfavourable, for, as I learnt from
some one on a vessel which arrived here yesterday by accident,
Cleander, the governor at Byzantium, intends coming here with ships
and men-of-war." Thereat they were all in favour of stopping; but they
must needs go out for provisions, and with this object he again
sacrificed three times, and the victims remained adverse. Things had
now reached such a pass that the men actually came to Xenophon's tent
to proclaim that they had no provisions. His sole answer was that he
would not lead them out till the victims were favourable.

So again the next day he sacrificed; and nearly the whole army, so
strong was the general anxiety, flocked round the victims; and now the
very victims themselves failed. So the generals, instead of leading
out the army, called the men together. Xenophon, as was incumbent on
him, spoke: "It is quite possible that the enemy are collected in a
body, and we shall have to fight. If we were to leave our baggage in
the strong place" (pointing overhead) "and sally forth prepared for
battle, the victims might favour us." But the soldiers, on hearing 22
this proposal, cried out, "No need to take us inside that place;
better sacrifice with all speed." Now sheep there were none any
longer. So they purchased oxen from under a wagon and sacrificed; and
Xenophon begged Cleanor the Arcadian to superintend the sacrifice on
his behalf, in case there might be some change now. But even so there
was no improvement.

Now Neon was general in place of Cheirisophus, and seeing the men
suffering so cruelly from want, he was willing to do them a good turn.
So he got hold of some Heracleot or other who said he knew of villages
close by from which they could get provisions, and proclaimed by
herald: "If any one liked to come out and get provisions, be it known
that he, Neon, would be their leader." So out came the men with
spears, and wine skins and sacks and other vessels--two thousand
strong in all. But when they had reached the villages and began to
scatter for the purpose of foraging, Pharnabazus's cavalry were the
first to fall upon them. They had come to the aid of the Bithynians,
wishing, if possible, in conjunction with the latter, to hinder the
Hellenes from entering Phrygia. These troopers killed no less than
five hundred of the men; the rest fled for the lives up into the hill

News of the catastrophe was presently brought into camp by one of
those who had escaped, and Xenophon, seeing that the victims had not
been favourable on that day, took a wagon bullock, in the absence of
other sacrificial beasts, offered it up, and started for the rescue,
he and the rest under thirty years of age to the last man. Thus they
picked up the remnant of Neon's party and returned to camp. It was now
about sunset; and the Hellenes in deep despondency were making their
evening meal, when all of a sudden, through bush and brake, a party of
Bithynians fell upon the pickets, cutting down some and chasing the
rest into camp. In the midst of screams and shouts the Hellenes ran to
their arms, one and all; yet to pursue or move the camp in the night
seemed hardly safe, for the ground was thickly grown with bush; all
they could do was to strengthen the outposts and keep watch under arms
the livelong night.