After this the enemy confined themselves to their own concerns, and 1
removed their households and property as far away as possible. The
Hellenes, on their side, were still awaiting the arrival of Cleander
with the ships of war and transports, which ought to be there soon. So
each day they went out with the baggage animals and slaves and
fearlessly brought in wheat and barley, wine and vegetables, millet
and figs; since the district produced all good things, the olive alone
excepted. When the army stayed in camp to rest, pillaging parties were
allowed to go out, and those who went out appropriated the spoils; but
when the whole army went out, if any one went off apart and seized 2
anything, it was voted to be public property. Ere long there was an
ample abundance of supplies of all sorts, for marketables arrived from
Hellenic cities on all sides, and marts were established. Mariners
coasting by, and hearing that a city was being founded and that there
was a harbour, were glad to put in. Even the hostile tribes dwelling
in the neighbourhood presently began to send envoys to Xenophon. It
was he who was forming the place into a city, as they understood, and
they would be glad to learn on what terms they might secure his
friendship. He made a point of introducing these visitors to the

Meanwhile Cleander arrived with two ships of war, but not a single
transport. At the moment of his arrival, as it happened, the army had
taken the field, and a separate party had gone off on a pillaging
expedition into the hills and had captured a number of small cattle.
In thir apprehension of being deprived of them, these same people
spoke to Dexippus (this was the same man who had made off from
Trapezus with the fifty-oared galley), and urged him to save their
sheep for them. "Take some for yourself," said they, "and give the
rest back to us." So, without more ado, he drove off the soldiers
standing near, who kept repeating that the spoil was public property.
Then off he went to Cleander. "Here is an attempt," said he, "at
robbery." Cleander bade him to bring up the culprit to him. Dexippus
seized on some one, and was for haling him to the Spartan governor.
Just then Agasias came across him and rescued the man, who was a
member of his company; and the rest of the soldiers present set to
work to stone Dexippus, calling him "traitor." Things looked so ill
that a number of the crew of the ships of war took fright and fled to
the sea, and with the rest Cleander himself. Xenophon and the other
generals tried to hold the men back, assuring Cleander that the affair
signified nothing at all, and that the origin of it was a decree pased
by the army. That was to blame, if anything. But Cleander, goaded by
Dexippus, and personally annoyed at the fright which he had
experienced, threatened to sail away and publish an interdict against
them, forbidding any city to receive them, as being public enemies. 9
For at this date the Lacedaemonians held sway over the whole Hellenic

Thereat the affair began to wear an ugly look, and the Hellenes begged
and implored Cleander to reconsider his intention. He replied that he
would be as good as his word, and that nothing should stop him, unless
the man who set the example of stoning, with the other who rescued the
prisoner, were given up to him. Now, one of the two whose persons were
thus demanded--Agasias--had been a friend to Xenophon throughout; and
that was just why Dexippus was all the more anxious to accuse him. In
their perplexity the generals summoned a full meeting of the soldiers,
and some speakers were disposed to make very light of Cleander and set
him at naught. But Xenophon took a more serious view of the matter; he
rose and addressed the meeting thus: "Soldiers, I cannot say that I
feel disposed to make light of this business, if Cleander be allowed
to go away, as he threatens to do, in his present temper towards us.
There are Hellenic cities close by; but then the Lacedaemonians are
the lords of Hellas, and they can, any one of them, carry out whatever
they like in the cities. If then the first thing this Lacedaemonian
does is to close the gates of Byzantium, and next to pass an order to
the other governors, city by city, not to receive us because we are a
set of lawless ruffians disloyal to the Lacedaemonians; and if,
further, this report of us should reach the ears of their admiral,
Anaxibius, to stay or to sail away will alike be difficult. Remember,
the Lacedaemonians at the present time are lords alike on land and on
sea. For the sake then of a single man, or for two men's sake, it is
not right that the rest of us should be debarred from Hellas; but
whatever they enjoin we must obey. Do not the cities which gave us
birth yield them obedience also? For my own part, inasmuch as
Dexippus, I believe, keeps telling Cleander that Agasias would never
have done this had not I, Xenophon, bidden him, I absolve you of all
complicity, and Agasias too, if Agasias himself states that I am in
any way a prime mover in this matter. If I have set the fashion of
stone-throwing or any other sort of violence I condemn myself--I say
that I deserve the extreme penalty, and I will submit to undergo it. I 15
further say that if any one else is accused, that man is bound to
surrender himself to Cleander for judgement, for by this means you
will be absolved entirely from the accusation. But as the matter now
stands, it is cruel that just when we were aspiring to win praise and
honour throughout Hellas, we are destined to sink below the level of
the rest of the world, banned from the Hellenic cities whose common
name we boast."

After him Agasias got up, and said, "I swear to you, sirs, by the gods
and goddesses, verily and indeed, neither Xenophon nor any one else
among you bade me rescue the man. I saw an honest man--one of my own
company--being taken up by Dexippus, the man who betrayed you, as you
know full well. That I could not endure; I rescued him, I admit the
fact. Do not you deliver me up. I will surrender myself, as Xenophon
suggests, to Cleander to pass what verdict on me he thinks right. Do
not, for the sake of such a matter, make foes of the Lacedaemonians;
rather God grant that[1] each of you may safely reach the goal of his
desire. Only do you choose from among yourselves and send with me to
Cleander those who, in case of any omission on my part, may by their
words and acts supply what is lacking." Thereupon the army granted him
to choose for himself whom he would have go with him and to go; and he
at once chose the generals. After this they all set off to
Cleander--Agasias and the generals and the man who had been rescued by
Agasias--and the generals spoke as follows: "The army has sent us to
you, Cleander, and this is their bidding: 'If you have fault to find
with all, they say, you ought to pass sentence on all, and do with
them what seems best; or if the charge is against one man or two, or
possibly several, what they expect of these people is to surrender
themselves to you for judgement.' Accordingly, if you lay anything to
the charge of us generals, here we stand at your bar. Or do you impute
the fault to some one not here? tell us whom. Short of flying in the
face of our authority, there is no one who will absent himself."

[1] Reading with the best MSS., {sozoisthe}. Agasias ends his sentence
with a prayer. Al. {sozesthe}, "act so that each," etc.

At this point Agasias stepped forward and said: "It was I, Cleander, 21
who rescued the man before you yonder from Dexippus, when the latter
was carrying him off, and it was I who gave the order to strike
Dexippus. My plea is that I know the prisoner to be an honest man. As
to Dexippus, I know that he was chosen by the army to command a
fifty-oared galley, which we had obtained by request from the men of
Trapezus for the express purpose of collecting vessels to carry us
safely home. But this same Dexippus betrayed his fellow-soldiers, with
whom he had been delivered from so many perils, and made off into
hiding like a runaway slave, whereby we have robbed the Trapezuntines
of their frigate, and must needs appear as knaves in their eyes for
this man's sake. As to ourselves, as far as he could, he has ruined
us; for, like the rest of us, he had heard how all but impossible it
was for us to retreat by foot across the rivers and to reach Hellas in
safety. That is the stamp of man whom I robbed of his prey. Now, had
it been you yourself who carried him off, or one of your emissaries,
or indeed any one short of a runaway from ourselves, be sure that I
should have acted far otherwise. Be assured that if you put me to
death at this time you are sacrificing a good, honest man for the sake
of a coward and a scamp."

When he had listened to these remarks, Cleander replied that if such
had been the conduct of Dexippus, he could not congratulate him. "But
still," he added, turning to the generals, "were Dexippus ever so
great a scamp he ought not to suffer violence; but in the language of
your own demand he was entitled to a fair trial, and so to obtain his
deserts. What I have to say at present therefore is: leave your friend
here and go your way, and when I give the order be present at the
trial. I have no further charge against the army or any one, since the
prisoner himself admits that he rescued the man." Then the man who had
been rescued said: "In behalf of myself, Cleander, if possibly you
think that I was being taken up for some misdeed, it is not so; I
neither struck nor shot; I merely said, 'The sheep are public
property;' for it was a resolution of the soldiers that whenever the
army went out as a body any booty privately obtained was to be public
property. That was all I said, and thereupon yonder fellow seized me 28
and began dragging me off. He wanted to stop our mouths, so that he
might have a share of the things himself, and keep the rest for these
buccaneers, contrary to the ordinance." In answer to that Cleander
said: "Very well, if that is your disposition you can stay behind too,
and we will take your case into consideration also."

Thereupon Cleander and his party proceeded to breakfast; but Xenophon
collected the army in assembly, and advised their sending a deputation
to Cleander to intercede in behalf of the men. Accordingly it was
resolved to send some generals and officers with Dracontius the
Spartan, and of the rest those who seemed best fitted to go. The
deputation was to request Cleander by all means to release the two
men. Accordingly Xenophon came and addressed him thus: "Cleander, you
have the men; the army has bowed to you and assented to do what you
wished with respect to these two members of their body and themselves
in general. But now they beg and pray you to give up these two men,
and not to put them to death. Many a good service have these two
wrought for our army in past days. Let them but obtain this from you,
and in return the army promises that, if you will put yourself at
their head and the gracious gods approve, they will show you how
orderly they are, how apt to obey their general, and, with heaven's
help, to face their foes unflinchingly. They make this further request
to you, that you will present yourself and take command of them and
make trial of them. 'Test us ourselves,' they say, 'and test Dexippus,
what each of us is like, and afterwards assign to each his due.'" When
Cleander heard these things, he answered: "Nay, by the twin gods, I
will answer you quickly enough. Here I make you a present of the two
men, and I will as you say present myself, and then, if the gods
vouchsafe, I will put myself at your head and lead you into Hellas.
Very different is your language from the tale I used to hear
concerning you from certain people, that you wanted to withdraw the
army from allegiance to the Lacedaemonians."

After this the deputation thanked him and retired, taking with them
the two men; then Cleander sacrificed as a preliminary to marching and
consorted friendlily with Xenophon, and the two struck up an alliance. 35
When the Spartan saw with what good discipline the men carried out
their orders, he was still more anxious to become their leader.
However, in spite of sacrifices repeated on three successive days, the
victims steadily remained unfavourable. So he summoned the generals
and said to them: "The victims smile not on me, they suffer me not to
lead you home; but be not out of heart at that. To you it is given, as
it would appear, to bring your men safe home. Forwards then, and for
our part, whenever you come yonder, we will bestow on you as warm a
welcome as we may."

Then the soldiers resolved to make him a present of the public cattle,
which he accepted, but again gave back to them. So he sailed away; but
the soldiers made division of the corn which they had collected and of
the other captured property, and commenced their homeward march
through the territory of the Bithynians.

At first they confined themselves to the main road; but not chancing
upon anything whereby they might reach a friendly territory with
something in their pockets for themselves, they resolved to turn sharp
round, and marched for one day and night in the opposite direction. By
this proceeding they captured many slaves and much small cattle; and
on the sixth day reached Chrysopolis in Chalcedonia[2]. Here they
halted seven days while they disposed of their booty by sale.

[2] The name should be written "Calchedonia." The false form drove out
the more correct, probably through a mispronunciation, based on a
wrong derivation, at some date long ago. The sites of Chrysopolis
and Calchedon correspond respectively to the modern Scutari and