Now these five were left--Neon the Asinaean, Phryniscus the Achaean, 1
Philesius the Achaean, Xanthicles the Achaean, Timasion the
Dardanian--at the head of the army, and they pushed on to some
villages of the Thracians facing Byzantium, and there encamped. Now
the generals could not agree. Cleanor and Phryniscus wished to march
to join Seuthes, who had worked upon their feelings by presenting one
with a horse and the other with a woman to wife. But Neon's object was
to come to the Chersonese: "When we are under the wing of the
Lacedaemonians," he thought, "I shall step to the front and command
the whole army."

Timasion's one ambition was to cross back again into Asia, hoping to
be reinstated at home and end his exile. The soldiers shared the
wishes of the last general. But, as time dragged on, many of the men
sold their arms at different places and set sail as best they could;
others [actually gave away their arms, some here, some there, and[1]] 3
became absorbed in the cities. One man rejoiced. This was Anaxibius,
to whom the break-up of the army was a blessing. "That is the way," he
said to himself, "I can best gratify Pharnabazus."

[1] The MSS. give the words so rendered--{oi de kai [didontes ta opla
kata tous khorous]}, which some critics emend {diadidontes},
others bracket as suspected, others expunge.

But Anaxibius, while prosecuting his voyage from Byzantium, was met at
Cyzicus by Aristarchus, the new governor, who was to succeed Cleander
at Byzantium; and report said that a new admiral, Polus, if he had not
actually arrived, would presently reach the Hellespont and relieve
Anaxibius. The latter sent a parting injunction to Aristarchus to be
sure and sell all the Cyreian soldiers he could lay hands on still
lingering in Byzantium; for Cleander had not sold a single man of
them; on the contrary, he had made it his business to tend the sick
and wounded, pitying them, and insisting on their being received in
the houses. Aristarchus changed all that, and was no sooner arrived in
Byzantium than he sold no less than four hundred of them. Meanwhile
Anaxibius, on his coasting voyage, reached Parium, and, according to
the terms of their agreement, he sent to Pharnabazus. But the latter,
learning that Aristarchus was the new governor at Byzantim, and that
Anixibius had ceased to be admiral, turned upon him a cold shoulder,
and set out concocting the same measures concerning the Cyreian army
with Aristarchus, as he had lately been at work upon with Anaxibius.

Anaxibius thereupon summoned Xenophon and bade him, by every manner of
means, sail to the army with the utmost speed, and keep it together.
"He was to collect the scattered fragments and march them down to
Perinthus, and thence convey them across to Asia without loss of
time." And herewith he put a thirty-oared galley at his srrvice, and
gave him a letter of authority and an officer to accompany him, with
an order to the Perinthians "to escort Xenophon without delay on
horseback to the army." So it was that Xenophon sailed across and
eventually reached the army. The soldiers gave him a joyous welcome,
and would have been only too glad to cross from Thrace into Asia under
his leadership.

But Seuthes, hearing that Xenophon had arrived, sent Medosades again, 10
by sea to meet him, and begged him to bring the army to him; and
whatever he thought would make his speech persuasive, he was ready to
promise him. But the other replied, that none of these things were
open to him to do; and with this answer Medosades departed, and the
Hellenes proceeded to Perinthus. Here on arrival Neon withdrew his
troops and encamped apart, having about eight hundred men; while the
remainder of the army lay in one place under the walls of Perinthus.

After this, Xenophon set himself to find vessels, so as to lose no
time in crossing. But in the interval Aristarchus, the governor from
Byzantium, arrived with a couple of war-ships, being moved to do so by
Pharnabazus. To make doubly sure, he first forbade the skippers and
shipmasters to carry the troops across, and then he visited the camp
and informed the soldiers that their passage into Asia was forbidden.
Xenophon replied that he was acting under the orders of Anaxibius, who
had sent him thither for this express purpose; to which Aristarchus
retorted, "For the matter of that, Anaxibius is no longer admiral, and
I am governor in this quarter; if I catch any of you at sea, I will
sink you." With these remarks he retired within the walls of

Next day, he sent for the generals and officers of the army. They had
already reached the fortification walls, when some one brought word to
Xenophon that if he set foot inside, he would be seized, and either
meet some ill fate there or more likely be delivered up to
Pharnabazus. On hearing this Xenophon sent forward the rest of the
party, but for himself pleaded that there was a sacrifice which he
wished to offer. In this way he contrived to turn back and consult the
victims, "Would the gods allow him to try and bring the army over to
Seuthes?" On the one hand it was plain that the idea of crossing over
to Asia in the face of this man with his ships of war, who meant to
bar the passage, was too dangerous. Nor did he altogether like the
notion of being blocked up in the Chersonese with an army in dire need
of everything; where, besides being at the beck and call of the 15
governor of the place, they would be debarred from the necessities of

While Xenophon was thus employed, the generals and officers came back
with a message from Aristarchus, who had told them they might retire
for the present, but in the afternoon he would expect them. The former
suspicions of a plot had now ripened to a certainty. Xenophon meantime
had ascertained that the victims were favourable to his project. He
personally, and the army as a whole, might with safety proceed to
Seuthes, they seemed to say. Accordingly, he took with him Polycrates,
the Athenian captain, and from each of the generals, not including
Neon, some one man whom they could in each case trust, and in the
night they set off to visit the army of Seuthes, sixty furlongs

As they approached, they came upon some deserted watch-fires, and
their first impression was that Seuthes had shifted his position; but
presently perceiving a confused sound (the voices of Seuthes' people
signalling to one another), the explanation dawned on him: Seuthes
kept his watch-fires kindled in front of, instead of behind, his night
pickets, in order that the outposts, being in the dark, might escape
notice, their numbers and position thus being a mystery; whilst any
party approaching from the outside, so far from escaping notice,
would, through the glare of the fire, stand out conspicuously.
Perceiving how matters stood, Xenophon sent forward his interpreter,
who was one of the party, and bade him inform Seuthes that Xenophon
was there and craved conference with him. The others asked if he were
an Athenian from the army yonder, and no sooner had the interpreter
replied, "Yes, the same," than up they leapt and galloped off; and in
less time than it takes to tell a couple of hundred peltasts had come
up who seized and carried off Xenophon and those with him and brought
them to Seuthes. The latter was in a tower right well guarded, and
there were horses round it in a circle, standing all ready bitted and
bridled; for his alarm was so great that he gave his horses their
provender during the day[2], and during the nights he kept watch and 21
ward with the brutes thus bitted and bridled. It was stated in
explanation that in old days an ancestor of his, named Teres, had been
in this very country with a large army, several of whom he had lost at
the hands of the native inhabitants, besides being robbed of his
baggage train. The inhabitants of the country are Thynians, and they
are reputed to be far the most warlike set of fighters--especially at

[2] I.e. "instead of letting them graze."

When they drew near, Seuthes bade Xenophon enter, and bring with him
any two he might choose. As soon as they were inside, they first
greeted one another warmly, and then, according to the Thracian
custom, pledged themselves in bowls of wine. There was further present
at the elbow of Seuthes, Medosades, who on all occasions acted as his
ambassador-in-chief. Xenophon took the initiative and spoke as
follows: "You have sent to me, Seuthes, once and again. On the first
occasion you sent Medosades yonder, to Chalcedon, and you begged me to
use my influence in favour of the army crossing over from Asia. You
promised me, in return for this conduct on my part, various
kindnesses; at least that is what Medosades stated"; and before
proceeding further he turned to Medosades and asked, "Is not that so?"
The other assented. "Again, on a second occasion, the same Medosades
came when I had crossed over from Parium to rejoin the army; and he
promised me that if I would bring you the army, you would in various
respects treat me as a friend and brother. He said especially with
regard to certain seaboard places of which you are the owner and lord,
that you were minded to make me a present of them." At this point he
again questioned Medosades, "Whether the words attributed to him were
exact?" and Medosades once more fully assented. "Come now," proceeded
Xenophon, "recount what answer I made you, and first at Chalcedon."
"You answered that the army was, in any case, about to cross over to
Byzantium; and as far as that went, there was no need to pay you or
any one else anything; and for yourself, you added, that once across
you were minded to leave the army, which thing came to pass even as
you said." "Well! what did I say," he asked, "at your next visit, when 28
you came to me in Selybria?" "You said that the proposal was
impossible; you were all going to Perinthus to cross into Asia."
"Good," said Xenophon, "and in spite of it all, at the present moment,
here I am myself, and Phryniscus, one of my colleagues, and Polycrates
yonder, a captain; and outside, to represent the other generals (all
except Neon the Laconian), the trustiest men they could find to send.
So that if you wish to give these transactions the seal of still
greater security, you have nothing to do but to summon them also; and
do you, Polycrates, go and say from me, that I bid them leave their
arms outside, and you can leave your own sword outside before you
enter with them on your return."

When Seuthes had heard so far, he interposed: "I should never mistrust
an Athenian, for we are relatives already[3], I know; and the best of
friends, I believe, we shall be." After that, as soon as the right men
entered, Xenophon first questioned Seuthes as to what use he intended
to make of the army, and he replied as follows: "Maesades was my
father; his sway extended over the Melanditae, the Thynians, and the
Tranipsae. Then the affairs of the Odrysians took a bad turn, and my
father was driven out of this country, and later on died himself of
sickness, leaving me to be brought up as an orphan at the court of
Medocus, the present king. But I, when I had grown to man's estate,
could not endure to live with my eyes fixed on another's board. So I
seated myself on the seat by him as a suppliant, and begged him to
give me as many men as he could spare, that I might wreak what
mischief I could on those who had driven us forth from our land; that
thus I might cease to live in dependence upon another's board, like a
dog watching his master's hand. In answer to my petition, he gave me 34
the men and the horses which you will see at break of day, and
nowadays I live with these, pillaging my own ancestral land. But if
you would join me, I think, with the help of heaven, we might easily
recover my empire. That is what I want of you." "Well then," said
Xenophon, "supposing we came, what should you be able to give us? the
soldiers, the officers, and the generals? Tell us that these witnesses
may report your answer." And he promised to give "to the common
soldiers a cyzicene[4], to a captain twice as much, and to a general
four times as much, with as much land as ever they liked, some yoke of
oxen, and a fortified place upon the seaboard." "But now supposing,"
said Xenophon, "we fail of success, in spite of our endeavours;
suppose any intimidation on the part of the Lacedaemonians should
arise; will you receive into your country any of us who may seek to
find a refuge with you?" He answered: "Nay, not only so, but I shall
look upon you as my brothers, entitled to share my seat, and the joint
possessors of all the wealth which we may be able to acquire. And to
you yourself, O Xenophon! I will give my daughter, and if you have a
daughter, I will buy her in Thracian fashion; and I will give you
Bisanthe as a dwelling-place, which is the fairest of all my
possessions on the seaboard[5]."

[3] Tradition said that the Thracians and Athenians were connected,
through the marriage of a former prince Tereus (or Teres) with
Procne, the daughter of Pandion. This old story, discredited by
Thucydides, ii. 29, is referred to in Arist. "Birds," 368 foll.
The Birds are about to charge the two Athenian intruders, when
Epops, king of the Birds, formerly Tereus, king of Thrace, but
long ago transformed into a hoopoe, intercedes in behalf of two
men, {tes emes gunaikos onte suggene kai phuleta}, "who are of my
lady's tribe and kin." As a matter of history, the Athenians had
in the year B.C. 431 made alliance with Sitalces, king of the
Odrysians (the son of Teres, the first founder of their empire),
and made his son, Sadocus, an Athenian citizen. Cf. Thuc. ib.;
Arist. Acharnians, 141 foll.

[4] A cyzicene monthly is to be understood.

[5] Bisanthe, one of the Ionic colonies founded by Samos, with the
Thracian name Rhaedestus (now Rodosto), strongly placed so as to
command the entrance into the Sacred mountain.